medusa and the female gaze

The Medusa Gaze explores the aspects of the snaky-haired figure from Greek myth as she appears in the novels and stories of nine women writers: Angela Carter, Toni Morrison, Margaret Atwood, Sylvia Plath, A. S. Byatt, Jean Rhys, Jeanette Winterson, Michèle Roberts, and Iris Murdoch. In contrast, Medusa represents a powerful and wise women whose matriarchal power challenges the patriarchal norms of societies and religion with her sexual freedom and her stare that kills ; in other words she is an “icon of the female gaze”.Her … Request Permissions. It illuminates women’s power and vulnerability as they construct their … According to Greek mythology, the sea-god Poseidon raped the beautiful mortal, Medusa, in goddess Athena’s temple. One of the largest publishers in the United States, the Johns Hopkins University Press combines traditional books and journals publishing units with cutting-edge service divisions that sustain diversity and independence among nonprofit, scholarly publishers, societies, and associations. Petrifying Gaze attack as well as poison bites from the hair snakes come with the package. Racial Utility Powers: When your medusa character gains a class utility power after 1st level, you can forgo taking a power granted to you by your class. In this capacity, the NWSAJ serves as a leader in the It also states that Poseidon had been lured by Medusa’s hair, so Athena turned it to snakes. of Contents. With a head of poisonous snakes and a murderous gaze, Medusa has come to epitomise female monstrosity. The story of Medusa is rather late, from OVID. special issues focused on topics especially important in the field of Through the lens of theology, film, art, and feminist literature, my students and I map how her meaning has shifted over time and across cultures. panoptic gaze, the Medusa gaze is an inspiring force available for women to claim for themselves [… in order to] remain strong against assault under the public eye, which values women as more or less attractive objects. Feminine voices are few and far between in the classical narratives that have formed the foundations of our literary traditions, so by using myths female writers have been able to give the feminine voice an element of authority that is equated, as, with so-called ‘high culture’, putting them on an even playing field with the male voices that have oppressed and silenced them for so long. Medusa is a greek gorgon, goddess and symbol of female empowerment. In addition to its essays focusing on feminist panoptic gaze, the Medusa gaze is an inspiring force available for women to claim for themselves [… in order to] remain strong against assault under the public eye, which values women as more or less attractive objects. NWSA Journal ©2000-2021 ITHAKA. However, another tradition, used by Mallarmé in Les Dieux antiques (1880), stressed a more personal rivalry: Medusa had once boasted that she was more beautiful than Athena. The differences are in whether Medusa is full of herself or if she is truly a victim of violence. Simply put, the female gaze is the greatest threat to the dominating male gaze.The female gaze in DuPlessis' poem triumphs over the male gaze, and the female voice is free to express itself "in sight, my netted reach/ in voice, my knotted speech"(DuPlessis, 1980: 42) As opposed to DuPlessis' empowerment and revitalisation of the female gaze, the gaze of Stanford's Medusa loses its vitality and freshness as … In Greek Mythology the gods/goddesses acted in vicious, irrational petty ways and Athena the goddess of wisdom was no exception. Athens Journal of Humanities and Arts July 2018 287 ancient symbol of the monstrous female that overshadowed the so-called issues. They noted that in the myths there was never an instance of Medusa turning a woman to stone. He uses this tool to gaze upon Medusa without being turned to stone and then he beheads her with a divine sword. From the cover of her CD “Medusa” (1995), the artist Annie Lennox returns our gaze and presents a remake, retransformation, and retrieval of the Medusa as an image of female, erotic power – and of consumption: The question of who consumes whom ultimately remains unanswered. In her 1975 manifesto The Laugh of the Medusa, the feminist theorist Hélène Cixous asserts that man created the monstrous legacy of Medusa through fear of female desire. The female gaze is a feminist film theoretical term representing the gaze of the female viewer. What can the myth of Medusa tell us about classical myth, perceptions of female power and sexism from antiquity to today? Read as many books as you like (Personal use) and Join Over 150.000 Happy Readers. focused on understanding women's lives. Medusa is widely known as a monstrous creature with snakes in her hair whose gaze turns men to stone. Psychoanalytic theory has decided that Medusa was "the terrible symbol of the female genital region," because the … For terms and use, please refer to our Terms and Conditions that she is actually the icon of the female gaze, that powerful expression of female subjectivity and creativity. The Medusa story is more than two millennia old. Traits Petrifying Gaze: When a creature that can see the medusa's eyes starts its turn within 30 ft. of the medusa, the medusa can force it to make a DC 14 Constitution saving throw if the medusa isn't incapacitated and can see the creature. According to Greek mythology, the sea-god Poseidon raped the beautiful mortal, Medusa, in goddess Athena’s temple. In her article Medusa and the Female Gaze (NWSA Journal, Vol.2), Susan R. Bowers says that “the patriarchal images of women from Greco-Roman mythology will continue to … What is the Female Gaze? But Medusa’s rape is glossed over, mentioned once at the beginning of the tale, if at all. To access this article, please, Access everything in the JPASS collection, Download up to 10 article PDFs to save and keep, Download up to 120 article PDFs to save and keep. The story of a powerful woman raped, demonized, then slain by a patriarchal society? In some variations of the myth, Medusa was born a monster like her sisters, described as girded with serpents, vibrating tongues, gnashing their teeth, having wings, brazen claws, and enormous teeth.In later myths (mainly in Ovid) Medusa was the only Gorgon to possess snake … Feminists reinterpreted Medusa as a woman who used her anger to avenge herself on the male gaze. Appropriate Offerings. Access supplemental materials and multimedia. Hopkins Fulfillment Services (HFS) Feminists reinterpreted Medusa as a woman who used her anger to avenge herself on the male gaze. In ancient Greek mythology, Medusa is a Gorgon, one of three hideous sisters whose appearance turns men to stone. Since we are directly told that Medusa is originally a virgin or is an anima-based personality, I have serious doubts as to the validity of this version of the story. With warehouses on three continents, worldwide sales representation, and a robust digital publishing program, the Books Division connects Hopkins authors to scholars, experts, and educational and research institutions around the world. We cannot guarantee that every book is in the library. Not all things are clear with myths, especially as these things can be mutated and twisted by many factors. ... Medusa has become a symbol of female empowerment. Medusa’s gaze subverts the male gaze. Caravaggio painted her. publishes interdisciplinary and multicultural feminist scholarship (16) Within this detailed, scholarly, yet … It’s meant to terrify men and turn them into stone-cold beings. Garbati’s Medusa nonsensically employs a male tool for bloodshed — Perseus’s sword — as a symbol of female empowerment, sending the message that women need to copy men’s tactics to wield power. Her face, whether fierce and grotesque or feminine and composed, appears in virtually all media in varying contexts. Such a Nasty Woman: Medusaʼs Head Freudʼs seminal Das Medusenhaupt, written in 1922, objectified Medusa and situated her in the space of the male point of view entirely, as a "phallic When Poseidon raped her, Athena’s wrath focused on Medusa (not Poseidon) and she turned her into a gorgon, hideously cursed with evil looks and left to live out her life as a monster. This item is part of a JSTOR Collection. Read your article online and download the PDF from your email or your account. It seems less of an ancient myth than a modern reality. She is killed by the hero Perseus, who cuts off her head.To the Greeks, Medusa is the leader of an ancient, older matriarchal religion that had to be obliterated; in modern culture, she represents vital sensuality and a power that is threatening to … HFS provides print and digital distribution for a distinguished list of university presses and nonprofit institutions. JSTOR®, the JSTOR logo, JPASS®, Artstor®, Reveal Digital™ and ITHAKA® are registered trademarks of ITHAKA. MUSE delivers outstanding results to the scholarly community by maximizing revenues for publishers, providing value to libraries, and enabling access for scholars worldwide. The works of these powerful and popular writers span several decades and multiple genres, from romance and … In her 1975 manifesto The Laugh of the Medusa, the feminist theorist Hélène Cixous asserts that man created the monstrous legacy of Medusa through fear of female desire. JSTOR is part of ITHAKA, a not-for-profit organization helping the academic community use digital technologies to preserve the scholarly record and to advance research and teaching in sustainable ways. Medusa remains a potent icon at a time when women leaders continue to be viewed skeptically or, at worst, as inhuman. She is killed by the hero Perseus, who cuts off her head.To the Greeks, Medusa is the leader of an ancient, older matriarchal religion that had to be obliterated; in modern culture, she represents vital sensuality and a power that is threatening to males. So misused and misunderstood in literary criticism of recent decades, the male gaze is a device like the face of Medusa. In the book called “Medusa and the Female Gaze” by the author named Susan R. Bowers, she explains the importance of how the medusa character is a representation of female empowerment when comes to characteristics of Medusa she says, “Medusa was a powerful goddess at a time when female authority was dominant and the power to be feared was feminine.” are both theoretical and practical, thereby foregrounding the ways in The female gaze is conceptually similar to the male gaze; that is, when women take up the male gaze, they view other people, and themselves, from the perspective of a man. Today Medusa, with her snake hair and stare that turns people to stone, endures as an allegorical figure of fatal beauty, or a ready image for superimposing the face … No one could look Medusa … The Medusa story is more than two millennia old. Shakespeare wrote about her. The portrayal of Medusa as a monster becomes the central sexist device of the myth, used to scare women off from casting a harsh gaze on their oppressors … Medusa was a virgin priestess of Athena serving in her temple. They noted that in the myths there was never an instance of Medusa turning a woman to stone. The Journals Division publishes 85 journals in the arts and humanities, technology and medicine, higher education, history, political science, and library science. Download Medusa S Gaze Book For Free in PDF, EPUB.In order to read online Medusa S Gaze textbook, you need to create a FREE account. According to Mary … Check out using a credit card or bank account with. After centuries of silence, conversations about rape culture began to restore Medusa’s voice. With a personal account, you can read up to 100 articles each month for free. The division also manages membership services for more than 50 scholarly and professional associations and societies. option. Published By: The Johns Hopkins University Press, Read Online (Free) relies on page scans, which are not currently available to screen readers. It’s easy to see why Cixous’ manifesto resonated far and wide. The National Women's Studies Association Journal (NWSA Journal) Especially the woman’s down-cast eyes point to the Medusa, whose gaze, in most images of her (thus, for instance, in the celebrated paintings by Caravaggio [1596] and Rubens [c.1618] as well as in the Flemish School painting “Medusa” [c.1620–30] attributed to da Vinci), is directed side- or downwards as if to spare the viewers from petrifaction. The NWSAJ accepts articles that HFS clients enjoy state-of-the-art warehousing, real-time access to critical business data, accounts receivable management and collection, and unparalleled customer service. This is quite interesting since the representation of the… I strongly feel we need to continue to look beyond the distortions of patriarchal interpretations and begin to reclaim ancient Goddesses in their original autonomy and power. Female Spectator In order to understand the relationship between the Medusa’s Head and the female spectator we need to reference Freud: “the woman is constructed differently in relation to processes of looking […] the woman has a problematic relation to the visible, to form, to structures of seeing” (Doane 1990: 47). With critically acclaimed titles in history, science, higher education, consumer health, humanities, classics, and public health, the Books Division publishes 150 new books each year and maintains a backlist in excess of 3,000 titles. From this, therefore, we can see why feminists have chosen to use myths to re-evaluate traditional perceptions of women. In some variations of the myth, Medusa was born a monster like her sisters, described as girded with serpents, vibrating tongues, gnashing their teeth, having wings, brazen claws, and enormous teeth.In later myths (mainly in Ovid) Medusa was the only Gorgon … Books When you hear the word Medusa your brain is likely to immediately conjure images of a fearsome and hideous monster no one should look at. See page illustration. It is mentioned that Medusas can procreate with any humanoid species, the offspring normally becomes Medusas. What can the myth of Medusa tell us about classical myth, perceptions of female power and sexism from antiquity to today? Perseus with the head of Medusa 7 Ways to Work With Medusa Goddess of Protection & Power. Alban presents Medusa and other goddess figures as inspirational, repelling evil through the ‘evil eye’ of their powerful gaze or inspirational force; she conversely shows the obverse perspective on women who are condemned as monstrous Gorgons, trapped in enmity, rivalry and rage. The Medusa Gaze offers striking insights into the desires and frustrations of women through the narratives of the impressive contemporary novelists Angela Carter, Toni Morrison, Sylvia Plath, Margaret Atwood, A.S. Byatt, Iris Murdoch, Jeanette Winterson, Jean Rhys and Michèle Roberts. MEDUSA AND THE FEMALE GAZE by Cheryl Gault, The story of Medusa is rather late, from OVID. If, she argued, they dared to “look at the Medusa straight on,” they would see … In Dungeons and Dragons editions 3 and 3.5, Medusa is an Always Female species with a humanoid body but serpent skin. Medusa is an instantly recognizable figure from ancient Greek art. Through the lens of theology, film, art, and feminist literature, my students and I map how her meaning has shifted over time and across cultures. It begins with a critique of the Court of Appeal ruling in R v. Evans (Chedwyn) and its forensic examination of the details of a female rape complainant's consensual sexual activity with other men. which critical analysis can inform action both in and outside of The Medusa Gaze offers striking insights into the desires and frustrations of women through the narratives of the impressive contemporary novelists Angela Carter, Toni Morrison, Sylvia Plath, Margaret Atwood, A.S. Byatt, Iris Murdoch, Jeanette Winterson, Jean Rhys and Michèle Roberts. Freud had a bloody field day. 3.4 Medusa’s Mask vs. Medusa Gaze: Female medusae gain the hardening gaze power. The most common interpretation of Medusa suggests she is an apotropaic symbol used to protect from and ward off the negative, much like the modern evil eye. “A Gorgon from classical mythology, Medusa is widely known as a monstrous creature with snakes in her hair whose gaze turns men to stone. Women's Studies. In ancient Greek mythology, Medusa is a Gorgon, one of three hideous sisters whose appearance turns men to stone. The Medusa figure has been presented by writers and scholars as the symbol of the victimized woman, a figure of both power and anger. Project MUSE is a leading provider of digital humanities and social sciences content, providing access to journal and book content from nearly 300 publishers. Project MUSE® Medusa’s beauty ensnared her in the lustful and entitled gaze of the sea god Poseidon, who raped her. Purchase this issue for $44.00 USD. Male medusae gain the vexing gaze power. Alban offers a wide perspective in her arguments regarding the Medusa gaze, offering the reader multiple insights through an array of literary texts. Medusa is a sea spirit at her core. Therefore sea water and sea salt are both … All Rights Reserved. Athena transformed the rape survivor into a monster with hair of snakes and a gaze that could turn men into stone. He was inspired by Vasari’s account of a lost painting by Leonardo da … If, she argued, they dared to “look at the Medusa straight on,” they would see that “she is not deadly, she’s beautiful and she’s laughing.” By documenting their experiences, Cixous wrote, women can deconstruct the sexist biases that portray the female body as a threat. Athena transformed the rape survivor into a monster with hair of snakes and a gaze that could turn men into stone. Studying the female characters as both the bearers and receivers of the “petrifying, nurturing and redemptive” gaze of Medusa, the “dreadfully gorgeous victim” (2), she views them through the vision filters of such giant figures as Freud, Lacan, Laing, de Beauvoir, Cixous, Irigaray, Spivak, … Once on an even playing field, these female writers are in prime position to question, destabilise and ultimately change the traditional narratives that have been so instrumental in defining and silencing women. In his ‘Metamorphosis’ he refers to Medusa being ‘violated’ and Athena ‘shielding her eyes’. scholarship and its reviews of books, the NWSAJ regularly publishes The most famous painting of Medusa – a female character from Greek mythology who had a hair of snakes and could turn men to stone if they met her gaze directly – was painted by Caravaggio in 1596. male & female gaze: following Perseus against horror of Medusa ... Beautiful women have ruled men through the male gaze. In his. If the saving throw fails by 5 or more, the creature is instantly petrified. Medusa was a formidable foe, since her hideous appearance was able to render any onlooker into stone. (16) Within this detailed, scholarly, yet accessible investigation of “the power The Press is home to the largest journal publication program of any U.S.-based university press. Miriam Robbins Dexter’s conclusions about Medusa could equally apply to Athena: ‘[Medusa] reminds us that we must not take the female “monster” at face value; that we must not only weigh her beneficent against her maleficent attributes but also take into consideration the worldview and socio-political stance of the patriarchal cultures which create her, fashioning the demonic female as scapegoat for the benefit and comfort of the male members of their societies.’. Medusa S Gaze. Go to Table Medusa was a formidable foe, since her hideous appearance was able to render any onlooker into stone. The great irony of Medusa is that she has become a classic example of the female object, though the greatest emphasis in the Medusa myth is the terrifying power of her own gaze. This paper analyses the visualisation of rape and sexual assault in legal and scholarly language. One is the arrival of Christianity (which was detrimental to the myths) and the other, the simple act of forgetting. Select a purchase Medusa is one of the more unusual divine figures of ancient Greece mythology.. One of a trio of Gorgon sisters, Medusa was the only sister who was not immortal. Medusa’s story, though, is indeed the most telling: Raped by Poseidon, she is cursed for it by Athena – her fabled beauty converted in to a monstrous and frightening visage with snakes instead of hair and her gaze a weapon in and of itself. field of Women's Studies. Journals academic settings. © 1990 The Johns Hopkins University Press She is famed for her snake-like hair and her gaze, which turns those who look at her to stone. about rape culture began to restore Medusa’s voice. Association Journal ( NWSA Journal © 1990 the Johns hopkins university Press Request.! Or feminine and composed, appears in virtually all media in varying contexts warehousing... Medusa has become a symbol of female subjectivity and creativity raped her real-time access to critical business,. Can the myth of Medusa turning a woman to stone Gorgon, one of three hideous sisters whose turns... Term representing the gaze of the female gaze, which turns those who look at her stone! Insights through an array of literary texts onlooker into stone registered trademarks of ITHAKA than a modern reality especially these. National women 's Studies Association Journal ( NWSA Journal ) publishes interdisciplinary and multicultural feminist scholarship on... 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